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顧問專欄

​財務、行銷分析與強化對策

李孟熹 老師

2016/12/30

企業營運不容犯錯的關鍵課題 & 企業績效業績與利益提升方法

李孟熹 老師

2016.12.20

101 條風險管理準則

摘自世界風險管理年會於美國洛杉磯討論決議案

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第一節  一般準則                                                           

001.一個組織的風險管理計劃必須配合組織的整體目標, 並應隨著目標之改變而修正!

    原文:『 An organization's risk management program must be tailored to its overall objectives and should change when those objectives change.』

002.倘若擁有一個安穩的企業(即不受不景氣, 倒閉, 產品市場變化之影響), 則風險管理計劃應能夠更具冒險性(RISKY)並降低其成本。                            

    原文:『 If you are in a "safe" business (relatively immune from depression, bankruptcy or shifts in products markets), your risk management program can be more "risky" and less costly.』

003.不要冒超過所能負擔(損失)的風險。           

    原文:『Don't risk more than you can afford to lose.』                  

004.不要冒過小的風險(或然率低, 但可能造成巨大災害)。                       

    原文:『Don't risk a lot for a little.』                                

005.應考慮一個災害事件(Occurrence)發生的可能性。                           

    原文:『Consider the odds of an occurrence.』                           

006.應有明確的目標並與公司的目標一致。                                     

    原文: 『Have clearly defined objectives which are consistent with      

    corporate objectives.』                                                

007.風險管理部門應視為組織的服務機能部門,應以其執行能力之大小作為績效認定之基礎。                                                                 

    原文:『The risk management department, as a user of services, should   

    award business on the basis of ability to perform.』                   

008.對任何重大的損失風險不祇是損失控制(Loss Control)或損失財務彌補(Loss    

    Financing)單獨來處理就足夠, 而應該使控制策略與財務彌補政策以一定正確的 

    比例搭配來處理才行。                                                    

    原文:『For any significant loss exposure, neither loss control nor loss

    financing a lone is enough; control and financing must be combined in  

    the right proportion.』                                                 

第二節  風險認知與衡量準則                                                 

009.財務報表的檢查可以幫助風險的認知與衡量。                               

    原文:『Review financial statements to help identify and measure risks.』

010.採用流程圖表可以認知出單一的資源供給者, 或其他連帶性的營業中斷風險。   

    原文:『Use flow charts to identify sole source suppliers or other      

    contingent business interruption exposures.』                          

011.為了能更完整認知和評估風險, 必須深入訪問工廠並與實際操作人員交談。     

    原文:『To more fully identify and assess risks, you must visit the     

    plants and relate to operations people.』                              

012.可靠的資料是估計機率(Probability)和幅度(Severity)的重要基礎。          

    原文:『A reliable data base is essential to estimate probability and   

    severity.』                                                             

013.精確並及時的風險資訊, 將可減少其風險或由其所引起的其他風險。           

    原文:『Accurate and timely risk information reduces risk,in and of     

    itself.』                                                              

014.風險經理人應該深入瞭解公司任何新的營運計劃, 包括採購, 設計等, 以確保不會

    產生新的風險。                                                         

    原文:『The risk manager should be involved in the purchase or design of

    any new operation to assure that there are no built-in risk management 

    problems.』                                                            

015.無論以合併, 購得或合夥方式參與一新公司, 必須事先仔細地評估其環境上的風險

    原文: 『Be certain environmental risks are evaluated in mergers,       

    acquisitions and joint ventures.』                                      

016.在選擇有害廢棄物(Hazardous Waste) 之處理商時, 應以該廠商在處理廢棄物時所

    採取之風險控制手段是否良好, 他們本身之財務結構是否穩定, 或從事此危險工作

    所引發之責任或損失, 是否有良好之保險保障為主要之考慮依據。』           

    原文: 『Select hazardous waste contractors on their risk control       

    measures and their financial stability or insurance protection.』      

017.在重要的風險區域範圍內, 積極尋求可能涉及的偶發重大風險事件。 (例如航空和

    核子科技產品, 及工程等設計的錯誤或不當的醫療事件等等。                 

    原文: 『Look for incidental involvement in critical risk areas. (i.e.  

    aircraft and nuclear products, medical malpractice, engineering design,

    etc.』                                                                 

第三節  風險控制準則                                                       

018.風險控制(Risk Control)是項積極改善風險單位本身性質之工作, 它可使成本做最

    有效之運用, 同時亦有助於單位或部門營運成本。                            

    原文:『Risk control works.  It is cost effective and helps control local

    operating cost.』                                                      

019.風險控制最首要的理由就是對生命的保護。                                 

    原文:『The first (and incontrovertible) reason for risk control is the 

    preservation of life.』                                                

020.一個財產保全計劃應以保護公司資產的需要來設計而非依照保險人之需要。     

    原文:『A property conservation program should be designed to protect   

    corporate assets - not the underwriter.』                              

021.最重要的工廠或唯一的資源供給者超過或違反正常高度防護風險制度HPR 的規定 

  時,應謹慎小心地予以注意。                                             

    原文:『Be mindful that key plants and sole source suppliers may need   

    protection above and beyond normal HPR (highly protected risks)        

    requirements.』                                                        

022.應善加利用經紀人或保險公司所提供隻風險控制服務,並可藉此機會擴大公司的 

  風險管理計劃,而不要坐失良機。                                         

    原文:『Use the risk control services of your broker and insurer as an  

    extension of your corporate program. Don't let them go off on a        

    tangent.』                                                             

023.一個完整的產品責任計劃,品質控制是唯一的辦法,因為只有品質控制才能確保 

  產品依照設計的規格去製造。                                             

    原文:『Quality control should not be a substitute for a full product   

    liability program. Quality control only assures the product is made    

    according to specifications, whether good or bad.』                    

024.應嚴格遵守政府部門各種有關安全標準之最低規定。                         

    原文:『Most of the safety-related "standards" of governmental agencies 

    should be considered as minimum requirements.』                        

025.重要之資料與文件應複製與分開儲存予不同地方並且應先覓妥或安排備用之資料 

  處理設備。                                                             

    原文:『Duplicate and separately store valuable papers and back-up data 

    processing media.』                                                    

026.應避免大部份的主管人員搭乘同一架飛機出差或旅行。                       

第四節 風險理財準則                                                       

027.風險管理應集中全力在每一單位災害事件發生時能夠使公司生存的最大金錢損失 

  之風險標準以內:                                                       

  ●低於這個標準時,應將購買保險與自保方案做成本效益之比較,而採行最佳之 

   策略。                                                               

  ●高於這個標準時,應將最可能發生的損失風險移轉出去(通常是購買保險);  

      此時,不能再以成本效益做標準,因為生存是最重要。                     

    原文:『Risk management should focus on two separate zones of risk      

    relative to the maximum dollar loss the company can survive from a     

    single occurrence.                                                     

    ●Below this level - optimize the use of insurance relative to current 

      cost.                                                                 

    ●Above this level - transfer risk (usually insurance) to maximum      

      extent possible - cost effectiveness is not a criterion in these     

      zone, survival is.』                                                  

028.凡不受預算限制的單位都可以採行預期利益現值大於預期成本的所有風險管理   

    方案或策略,並可藉此而獲得最大的效益。                                 

    原文: 『An entity with an unlimited budget can benefit from adopting    

    all risk management measures which have benefits to the entity with    

    an expected present value greater than the expected present value of   

    costs of those measures to that entity.』                              

029.當一單位因為預算或實務上的理由而被迫必須在眾多的風險管理備選方案中做   

  抉擇時,則他應該選擇預期利益現值與預期成本現值之差為最大的一方。       

    原文: 『When, for budgetary or practical reason, an entity must        

    choose between mutually exclusive risk management measures, the        

    entity should choose the measure that offers it the greatest excess    

    of benefits over costs, when both benefits and costs are expressed as  

    expected present values.』                                             

030.競標將導致市場崩潰,應該避免。                                         

  原文: 『Competitive bidding which causes market disruption should be    

    avoided.』                                                              

031.不要單單依賴某一保險人提供所有的其他保險。                             

    原文: 『Never depend solely on someone else's insurance.』             

032.追朔費率計劃(Retrospective Rating Plans)若超過一年以上,反而會產生妨礙

  與不適應性。                                                           

    原文: 『Retrospective rating plans of more than one year hamper        

    flexibility.』                                                         

033.節稅方面的優點應加以考慮----但這不是風險理財決策的主要理由。           

  原文: 『A tax advantage should be considered a "plus" - not a principal

    reason for a risk financing decision.』                                

034.風險承擔(Risk Taking)意謂著一個企業經濟上獲利的機會。                

  原文: 『Risk taking presents an opportunity for economic gain.』       

第五節 索賠管理準則                                                        

035.風險管理人在有任何重大的損失或潛在的損失發生時,應立即被通知。         

  (在24小時內)                                                         

    原文: 『The risk manager should be notified immediately (within 24     

    hours) of any major loss or potential loss.』                          

036.對於重大的責任索賠案件,應該仔細檢查保險人調查過程的適當性與其賠款準備 

  金的精確性。                                                           

    原文: 『Major liability claims should be reviewed for adequacy of      

    investigation and accuracy of reserve.』                               

037.應謹慎地處理涉及地方性工廠財產和責任的索賠案件。                       

    原文: 『Be careful of local plant involvement in property and liability

    claims. Local personnel may be too defensive to properly review a major 

    claim.』                                                               

038.應要求保險人預先墊付重大的財產和營業中斷的損失。                       

  原文: 『Request early advance payments on large property and business  

    interruption losses.』                                                  

039.對車輛實體損失的自保方案應做確實的評估與估計。                         

  原文: 『Secure several estimates or an appraisal of self-insured vehicle

    physical damage losses.』                                              

040.總合索賠中代位求償(無論是被保險人或自保人)均可減低成本。              

    原文: 『Aggressive claims subrogation (insured and self-insured) reduces

    costs.』                                                               

041.一個良好的索賠和傷殘管理計劃,可節省金錢並儘快導引傷殘的員工回到其工作崗

  位上,即使該員工還未能完全恢復但可處理各階段的工作。                   

  原文: 『A claim and disability management program, directed toward     

    getting the employee back to work as soon as possible can save money   

    even though the employee can not do all phases of the job.』           

042.定期稽核保險人的賠款準備金和自保方案所提存的準備金。                    

    原文: 『Periodically audit claims reserves of insurers and             

    self-insurance administrators.』                                       

043.最好的索賠就是已結案的理賠。                                           

  原文: 『The best claim is a closed claim.』                            

第六節 員工福利準則                                                       

044.應清楚說明員工福利計劃的規定和成本並經常與員工溝通。                   

  原文: 『The provisions and costs of employee benefit programs should be

    clearly and frequently communicated to employees.』                    

045.當將建立一個新的福利計劃時,應先考慮將來減少福利將遠比改善福利來的困難。

  原文: 『When installing a new benefit plan, it is harder to reduce     

    benefit than to improve them later on.』                               

046.一個不良的員工福利計劃遠比沒有任何計劃更易招致勞資關係問題的產生。     

    原文: 『A poor employee benefit program can generate more employee     

    relations problem than no plan at all.』                               

047.員工的醵出金額縱然很少,確能幫助公司瞭解員工福利計劃壽歡迎的程度。     

  原文: 『Employee contributions, even small ones, can help you assess   

    the real popularity of a benefit plan.』                               

048.應多瞭解公司的福利計劃和會與自己企業競爭之公司的員工福利計劃。         

  原文: 『Know the benefit plans of the companies with whom you compete  

    for labor.』                                                            

049.員工福利顧問和經紀人並不能完全取代公司內部幕僚們所具有的功能。         

  原文: 『Benefit consultants and brokers are not efficiency replacements

    for in-house staff functions.』                                        

050.員工福利蹉商經驗的累積將會形成公司福利計劃的專業知識。                 

  原文: 『Collective bargaining of employee benefits should involve      

    corporate benefit professionals.』                                     

051.員工福利的立法和監理將日益增強,在政府立法制定各種員工福利法案前,應將 

  企業的意見反映給政府。                                                  

    原文: 『Legislation and regulation are intensifying in the employee    

    benefit field.  Make your company's opinions known to the government   

    before legislation is enacted.』                                        

第七節 退休年金準則                                                       

052.任何退休年金計劃最後的成本等於福利支出加上行政上的成本減去基金投資的任何

  盈餘。                                                                 

    原文: 『The ultimate cost of any pension plan is equal to the benefit   

    paid, plus the cost of administration, less any investment earnings of 

    the fund.』                                                            

053.退休年金雖然由於精算方法或假設情況的差異而導致附屬成本的改變,但就大多數

  而言,幾乎不會改變其最後的成本水平。                                   

  原文: 『For the most part different actuarial methods and/or assumptions

    may alter the incidence of cost, but seldom alter the ultimate level of

    cost.』                                                               

054.應清楚地辨認公司的目標與退休計劃。                                      

  原文: 『Clearly identify your corporate objectives with respect to your

    retirement program.』                                                  

055.應認知公司的退休計畫是一種長期的義務並且將涉及許多政治,經濟和社會上的 

  環境。                                                                  

  原文: 『Recognize that retirement plans are long-term obligations which 

    will span many political, economic and social environments.』          

056.應瞭解以前所承諾過的任何退休金責任和範圍。                             

  原文: 『Identify the nature and extent of pension liability prior to any

    acquisition or divestiture.』                                           

057.應建立有關公司退休年金基金的正式投資目標,這樣才可以界定出風險,多元化和

  績效的變數。                                                           

    原文: 『Establish formal investment objectives with respect to your    

    pension funds which define risk, diversification and absolute          

    performance parameters.                                                

058.應以投資書面目標,評估退休基金之投資績效。                              

    原文: 『Monitor the performance of your pension fund in the context of 

    your investment objectives.』                                          

059.當參加任何行業的多重性雇主退休年金計劃後,應迅速辨明並監視公司的潛在性 

  暴露風險。                                                              

    原文: 『Identify and monitor your corporate exposure as a result of    

    participation in any industrywide multiemployer pension plan.』        

第八節 多國籍風險管理準則                                                 

060.多國籍(Multinational) 的企業組織應建立其國際性風險管理職責。         

  原文: 『Multinational organizations should step up to their            

    international risk management responsibilities.』                      

061.應建立一個世界性的風險和保險管理計劃,但不要完全倚賴條款差異性         

    (Difference-In-Conditions;DIC)保險,要因地制宜做好風險管理計劃。       

    原文: 『Establish a worldwide risk and insurance management program;   

    don't rely totally on a difference-in-conditions approach.』           

062.經認可(Admitted)和未經認可(Non-Admitted)保險的結合,通常能提供最完整的 

  國際性風險管理計劃。                                                    

  原文: 『A combination of admitted and non-admitted insurance usually   

    provides the best overall international program.』                     

063.避免使用海外之長期保單。                                               

    原文: 『Avoid the use of long-term policies overseas.』                

064.當在執行世界性的風險管理計劃時,必須時刻保持敏銳的洞察力並且不要低估當地

  企業國營化主義。                                                       

    原文: 『Be sensitive to and don't underestimate nationalism when       

    implementing a world wide risk management program.』                   

065.不要忽視海外當地對全球性計劃方案之反對。                               

    原文: 『Don't ignore local objections to worldwide programs.』         

第九節 風險管理行政準則                                                    

066.藉著風險管理政策說明書制定一套完整的授權標準。                         

  原文: 『Establish a level of authority via a management policy         

    statement.』                                                           

067.應編制並普遍地分發給各單位一套完整的公司風險管理手冊。                  

  原文: 『Prepare and universally distribute a corporate risk management 

    manual.』                                                              

068.每年應與經紀人,保險人和經銷商定一個年度目標並衡量他們的績效和成果。   

  原文: 『Set up realistic annual objectives with your brokers,          

    underwriters and vendors and measure their accomplishments and results

    .』                                                                    

069.應查證所收集到的資料之正確性。                                         

  原文: 『Verify the accuracy of all relevant information you receive.』 

070.應仔細地閱讀每一張保險單上的條款與規定。                               

  原文: 『Read every insurance policy carefully.』                       

071.公司的風險管理計劃設計應盡量趨向簡單。                                 

  原文: 『Keep program design simple.』                                  

072.應盡量作合併簡化的工作--當如此做對公司才有意義。                       

    原文: 『Consolidate--where it makes sense to do so.』                  

073.應發展並建立一套記錄,使公司保留各種程序和方法。                       

    原文: 『Develop record retention procedures.』                        

074.應保持公司內部各單位間保險費合理攤派的重要性。                         

  原文: 『Keep intercompany premium allocations confidential.』          

075.應建立一套公司風險管理行政的書面文件。                                 

  原文: 『Establish administrative procedures in writing.』              

第十節 風險管理技術準則                                                   

076.保險單上的條款應該統一,就如同被保險人名稱,通知和解約條款,投保區域之規定等。                                                               

  原文: 『Insurance policy provision should be uniform as to named       

    insured, notice and cancellation clauses, territory, etc.』            

077.所有保險單上的「通知」條款,應該予以修改以適合通知特殊的個人。         

    原文: 『The "notice" provision in all insurance policies should be     

    modified to mean notice to a specific individual.』                    

078.有年總保險金額之基本保險單,其保險期間應與超額保險單的保險期間一致。   

  原文: 『Primary policies with annual aggregates should have policy     

    periods which coincide with excess policies.』                         

079.應從火災,鍋爐和機械之專業保險人間取得共同損失分擔協議。               

  原文: 『Joint loss agreements should be obtained from fire and boiler  

    and machinery insurers.』                                              

080.應增加「駕駛他人汽車」條款,以保障公司的汽車保險利益。                 

    原文: 『Add "drive other car" protection to your corporate automobile  

    insurance.』                                                           

081.應取消「共同分擔條款」,可增加對公司的保障。                           

  原文: 『Eliminate coinsurance clause.』                                

082.應清楚瞭解責任保險契約中「請求賠償基礎」和「事故發生基礎」之間的理賠差異和其處理過程。                                                       

    原文: 『Know the implications of and differences between "claims made" 

    and "pay on behalf of"liability contracts.』                           

083.公司因契約責任所必須承受的風險,可藉購買契約責任保險單而轉嫁給保險人承擔。                                                                   

    原文: 『Risks accepted under contracts are not necessarily covered     

    under contractual liability coverage.』                                

084.在使新加入的員工成為責任保險契約中的被保險人時,應盡量採用廣義的說明, 

  以避免懷有敵意的人提出抗辯。                                           

  原文: 『Add employees as insiders to liability contracts.  Use         

    discretionary language to avoid defending hostile persons.』           

第十一節 風險管理溝通準則                                                  

085.所有的溝通都應以明確且客觀的言詞來表達,而絕不能讓人有片面解釋或斷章取義的餘地。                                                               

    原文: 『All communication providing or requesting information should be

    expressed in clear, objective language, leaving no room for individual 

    interpretation.』                                                      

086.在處理所有的溝通或溝通關係時,應對決策階層的訊息予已適當的考慮。       

  原文: 『All communications and relationships should be conducted with  

    due consideration to proprietary information.』                        

087.溝通應有效的做到「上聞下達」的地步,並應避免使館理人(或經營人)於     

  「聞訊」後感到吃驚或意外。                                             

  原文: 『Communicate effectively up and down and avoid management       

    surprises.』                                                           

088.不必告訴高階主管什麼事情,只要問他們,建議他們以及通知們(什麼事情)   

  即可。                                                                 

    原文: 『Don't tell senior management anything--ask them, counsel them, 

    inform them.』                                                         

089.應以一般商業用與來溝通,並應避免使用保險術語來溝通。                   

  原文: 『Communicate in business language, avoid insurance jargon.』    

090.對於實際保險契約外或服務契約外的協議或附加的協議,應確切瞭解協議中文字的「玹外之意」(或字裡行間的法令與解釋),而絕對不能依賴「口頭上」的協議來行事。                                                             

    原文: 『Obtain letters of intent or interpretations regarding          

    agreements (coverage or administration) which are outside of and/or in

    addition to actual insurance or service contracts. Never rely on verbal

    agreements.』                                                          

091.直接負責風險管理的主管應受過風險管理的專業訓練教育。                   

  原文: 『The immediate supervisor to the risk management function should

    be educated in the principles of risk management.』                    

092.應該把每一個保險免責條款和不屬於保險範圍的執行事項與管理人(或經營人) 

  溝通。                                                                 

    原文: 『Communicate every insurance exclusion and non-insurance         

    implication to your management.』                                      

093.在競標中,應向每一位投標人表明「每人的第一次標價就是真正的標價」,並且應堅持這個原則。                                                       

  原文: 『In competitive bidding situations, advise each competitor that 

    the first bid is the only bid and stick to it.』                       

094.風險管理人應經常主動拜訪保險人,以便取得市場消息,而不應完全依賴其他的人來取得市場消息。                                                     

    原文: 『Risk managers should meet with underwriters rather than relying

    totally on others for market communications.』                         

第十二節 風險管理哲學準則                                                 

095.風險管理人(或其公司)應避免建立「始作俑者」或「市場帶頭者(投機者)」 

  的「名聲」,這種名聲將會損及公司的最佳利益及風險管理人的信譽。         

  原文: 『The risk manager (and his corporation) should avoid developing 

    the reputation of a 「shopper」or 「market burner」, This reputation   

    can be detrimental to the corporation's best interests and the risk    

    manager's credibility.』                                                

096.確定自己對規避風險(Risk Aversion)的程度,並據此來調整直覺判斷。      

  原文: 『Determine your personal level of risk aversion and temper      

    intuitive judgements up or down accordingly.』                         

097.風險管理方案或策略的設計需視管理人規避風險的實際情況而隨時於以調整。   

    原文: 『Program design will always be a function of current            

    practicalities tempered by management's level of risk aversion.』      

098.企業中的每一個人均要有為公司「贏得客戶滿意,賺取合理利潤」的心志。     

    原文: 『Every one is in business to make a fair profit.』               

099.長期且誠信的關係是絕不會「過時」的。                                   

    原文: 『Long term, good faith relationships are not obsolete.』        

100.誠篤正直的心態絕不會「落伍」。                                         

  原文: 『Integrity is not out of style.』                                

101.風險管理的最重要要素就是一般常識。                                     

    原文: 『Common sense is the most important ingredient in risk          

    management.』

顧問產業發展之相關資訊說明(含黃理事長孝文簡介)

中華民國企業經營管理顧問協會 理事長 黃孝文 先生

林天祥Mikko老師提出8項經營管理的思考點

林天祥Mikko老師

2015年03月25日

(1)對待員工/團隊成員的3種思維:

         -員工/團隊成員 很重要 Important.

         -每位員工/團隊成員都會有不同的貢獻

           Different & Specific Contribution.

         -要尊重每一位員工/團隊成員

           Treat them with Respect &Dignity.

 

(2)創造 前進策略Go Strategy的3個思考點:

       「盤點內在的優勢」、「找出機會點」、「善用與整合外部資源」

         →建構前進策略 Go Strategy.

         Strength + Opportunity + Resource → Go Strategy

 

(3)執行前進策略的3個子策略:

         -行動策略Action Strategy.

         -保護策略Protection Strategy.

         -協力合作策略Cooperation、Collaboration Strategy.

 

(4)將事情做好的3個成功關鍵因素:

        「知道」→「行動」→「整合與應用」

         The key to “Well-done” is not only simply in “Knowing something but also Implement、Integrate & Apply to it.

 

(5)建立良好人際關係的3種作法:

         -積極主動的擴展人際關係

          Be Active to expand your Interrelationship.

         -要真心誠意、忠實可靠、重承諾

          Be Sincere & Wholehearted、Reliable & Faithful、Committed & Promised.

         -要有熱情

          Be Passionate.

 

(6)品牌的3贏價值:

         品牌經由塑造優質形象進而創造無限的品牌價值-品值.

         Excellent Image → Create the Unlimited Branding Value.

         並進而創造3贏的價值:

         -顧客滿意 Customer/Client     Satisfaction.

         -公司滿意 Company/Corporate   Satisfaction.

         -員工滿意 Internal Customer   Satisfaction.

 

(7)想要成功,循著3個思維步驟:

         -甚麼是你真正喜歡做的事

          What is you Really Like to do ?

         -找出成功的方法

          Dig 、Find the Ways & Methods to the Success.

         -藉著成功過美好的生活

          Not only Success, but also Enjoy the Delightful Life.

 

(8)成功的3大信念

         -我註定要在生命中成功

           I’m  destined to be Successful in my life.

         - 在某些情況中,我會一直追求好、更好、最好.

           In some situations, I’ll pursue Good, Better and the Best now & future forever.

         -我致力於將內心中的理想在時間的畫布上變成真實.

           I strive to make the Ideal in my inner mind come true

           on the canvas of time.

鄭立高 顧問

2014年12月22日

 引言

筆者自87 年起受聘擔任「企業訓練輔導團」顧問,續於96 年起擔任「訓練品質(TTQS)服務團」之

顧問至今,每每發現:極大多數接受輔導的機構/人員,在進行「設計/建制TTQS」時,經常未能先

「全然理解/真心探求」--如何能以「品質管理/制」手法導入此類(訓練行政/管理)作業?!--我意指其

未能掌握「持續矯正改善」的品管精神與策略,無從精準選對關鍵點著手規劃/設計,以致最終顯現

虛應故事之窘況;因此撰擬本文予以闡釋。

受訪人:中華民國企業經營管理顧問協會 理事長 黃孝文先生

受訪日期:2014年 5月 5日(發佈日期:2014年 7月 24日)

一. 我國管理顧問業者發展模式及主要利基為何?

二. 目前我國管理顧問業市場概況及主要外國競爭對手為何?

三. 兩岸服務貿易協定後,對我國管理顧問業之可能影響?

四. 兩岸服務貿易後,我國管理顧問業經營外國市場之效益?

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